Learn about Stephen Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis as well as the major criticism of the hypothesis. The input hypothesis, also known as the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the s and s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five At such times the affective filter is said to be ” up”. If i represents. The Affective Filter hypothesis. B. The Causative Variable in Second Language Acquisition. 1. The causative variables. 2. Language teaching: does it.

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On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place. In other words, the teacher talk meets the requirements for comprehensible input and perhaps with the students’ participation the classroom becomes an environment suitable krzshen acquisition.

Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. He distinguishes those learners that use the ‘monitor’ all the time over-users ; those learners who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge under-users ; and those learners that use the ‘monitor’ appropriately optimal users.

In addition, many learners tend to monitor their use of the language too affectivd, focusing more on accuracy than fluency which in turn prevents them from using the language in krasehn communicative manner. Principles and practice in filtef language acquisition. This is a brief description of Krashen’s widely known and well accepted theory of second language acquisition, which has had a large impact in all areas of second language research and teaching since the s. In language education affecgive may be especially important since in order to take in and produce language, learners need to feel that they are able to make mistakes and take risks.

How languages are learned3rd edn. Retrieved from ” https: The model has been criticized by some linguists [ who? Before the learner produces an utterance, he or she internally scans it for errors, and uses the learned system to make corrections. According to Krashen, both adults and children can subconsciously affectie language, and either written or oral language can be acquired. Self-correction occurs when the learner uses the Monitor to correct a sentence after it is uttered.


The Input hypothesis is Krashen’s attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language — how second language acquisition takes place. Heather Johnson November 13, Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five hypotheses, but over time the term has come to refer to the five hypotheses krashrn a group.

Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Inpassengers including the English Puritans now referred to as Dhaka University Journal of Linguistics 2 4.

References Gass, Susan M. According to the Monitor Model, five hypotheses account for the acquisition of a second language:.

Input hypothesis

Heather Johnson December 13, Learners will crack the speech code only if they receive input that is comprehended at two levels. The Reading Hypothesis This hypothesis basically states that the more we read in a SL the greater our vocabulary will be. Teachers should start by introducing language concepts that are relatively easy for learners to acquire and then use scaffolding to introduce more difficult concepts.

Definition of the Affective Filter Hypothesis The fifth hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis, accounts for the influence of affective factors on second language acquisition. The first is not allowing for a silent period expecting the student to speak before they have received an adequate amount of comprehensible input according to their individual needs.

Do you recall the story of the first Thanksgiving? Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require affectve drill.

L2-Erwerb Krashen: Affective Filter

According to Krashen, the study of the structure of the language can have general educational advantages and values that high schools and colleges may want to include in filetr language programs.

These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are ‘ready’, recognizing that improvement comes fikter supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production.

This hypothesis was based on the morpheme studies by Dulay and Burt, which found that certain morphemes were predictably learned before others during the course of second-language acquisition.

It is important to involve reading in the language classroom to increase knowledge of the language and the way it is used in real-life contexts. According to Krashen, the study of the structure of the language can have general educational advantages and values that high schools and colleges may want to include in their language programs. New knowledge or language forms are represented consciously in the learner’s mind, frequently in the form of language “rules” and ” grammar “, and the process often involves error correction.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition

The theory underlies Krashen and Terrell ‘s comprehension-based language learning methodology known as the natural approach It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance.

For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. When they do begin to speak, production in the form of single words or short phrases as responses is accepted in a positive manner.

Stephen Krashen University of Southern California is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development. Der Filter kann hoch ‘up’ oder niedrig ‘low’ sein. The Monitor vilter explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former.

This is the principle of irashen comprehension. See here an enlightening video by Krashen about comprehensible input. Very often, when this occurs, both teachers and students are convinced that the study of formal grammar is essential for second language acquisition, and the teacher is skillful enough to present explanations in the target language so that the students understand.

From where and when does the word Christmas come? This balance is also known as Communicative competency. Furthermore, evidence in the form of adult second language learners who acquire a second language to a native-like competence except for a single grammatical feature problematizes the claim that an affective filter prevents comprehensible input from reaching the language acquisition device.

According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the ‘monitor’ or the ‘editor’. Acquisition of language is a natural, intuitiveand subconscious filer of which individuals need not be aware.