The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.

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For the second group, foreign-language learners, there may be even less necessity for real-world writing, depending on their personal and professional goals, and on the usefulness wditing the second language as an inter- national means of communication.

Irih marked it as to-read Dec 07, However, it is important to view writing not solely as the product of an individual, but as a social and cultural act.

In the real world, of course, there are plenty of examples of speech that exhibit charac- teristics of written language sermons and lectures, for example and many examples of written language that resemble speech for example, e-mail communication, informal notes, or screenplays.

On the other hand, if the task involves a genre that is unfamiliar to writers, some writers who are otherwise skilled may not be able to perform well. Test usefulness and the appropriate balance among the different qualities cannot be prescribed in general, but must be determined for each specific testing situation. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. To take an example, writint a student chooses to write an essay wrtiing and contrasting the works of Mozart sarz Beethoven, a writing task that would require a certain amount of knowledge about music.

I have found this book a superb place to start researching a theis on writing assessment.

English has also been called a ‘writer- responsible’ language Hinds,meaning that the writer makes explicit the connections between propositions and ideas in the text so that readers do not need to infer these connections on their own.

While models of complex cognitive activities such as writing can never be completely accurate or proventhey are useful for consid- ering the various factors that influence the process.


As Grabe and Kaplan note, Bereiter and Scardamalia’s two- The nature of writing ability 35 model process has much to recommend it. This model is reproduced here as Table 1. Share your thoughts with other customers. Finally, there is a third group of L2 learners: For that reason we should not set tasks which measure those abilities’ p. The Hayes model attempts to outline the aswessing influences on the writing process, particularly those in- ternal to the writer, while the Bereiter and Scardamalia model ad- dresses the different processes followed by cushint versus novice writers.

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Content and discourse cues called topic and genre identifiers in the assignment are used to search one’s memory for relevant content items. Thus, when we speak of strategic competence in writing, we mean not just general problem- solving abilities, but the abilities described in the models of writing presented in Wfiting 2: The option chosen will depend on the specific purpose of the test.

In this case, the test developers may decide that authenticity is less of a consideration than other aspects of usefulness such as reliability. In this chapter I will discuss writing assessment from the point of view of language testing, which has traditionally concerned wweigle with defining what is meant by language ability in general, as an underlying cognitive ability and as manifested through the traditional skills of speaking, listening, reading, and weitle. Thus, assedsing telling follows the straight- ahead form of ordinary speech production and does not require any greater amount of planning or goal setting than does everyday con- versation pp.

Thienly marked it as to-read Nov 03, While this categorization was intended originally for school writing, it may be useful to return to the five groups of second-language writers described above and map their typical writing needs onto this grid see Table 1. Purpose, Process, and Practice Dana R. My research assistant, Gerry Landers, was a tremendous help in getting the list of references and tables together. This is particularly the case for foreign-language learners; second-language learners in the first group have a greater and more immediate need for basic writing, and instruction for these students thus tends to include more writing earlier on of the ‘survival’ type, such as writing one’s name and address and filling out basic forms.


Bachman and Palmer present the following three guiding principles for considering the qualities of usefulness in test construction and selection: What will we do with the information that we get from the test?

Perhaps the best way to begin to appreciate the complexities in L2 writing is to contrast it with LI writing.

Assessing Writing – Sara Cushing Weigle – Google Books

Melissa marked it as to-read Dec cushint, Bachman and Palmer note that test takers themselves can be affected by three aspects of testing procedures: Finally, a model of test usefulness is presented, which provides a systematic approach to considering various aspects of tests that make them more or less useful for a given situation.

Content analysis usually consists of the judgements of subject- matter experts to determine the adequacy and representativeness of the test content vis-a-vis the domain to which test results are in- tended to generalize. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. TOEFL materials are cuzhing by permission of Educational Testing Service, the copyright owner; however, the test questions and any other testing information are provided in their entirety by Cambridge University Press.

It has been suggested that beneficial washback depends in part upon factors such as the importance of the test, the status of the language being tested, and the purpose and format of the test Shohamy et al, Hayes’ model recognizes the important roles that motivation and affect play in writing.