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Calendario Hebreo – calendrier
It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portionsyahrzeits dates to commemorate the death of a relativeand daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses. In Israelit is used for religious purposes, provides a hebrek frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been steadily declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar. The present Hebrew calendar is the product of evolution, including a Babylonian influence.
Until the Tannaitic period approximately 10— CEthe calendar employed a new crescent moonwith an additional month normally added every two or three years to correct for the difference between twelve lunar months and the solar year.
The year in which it was added was based on observation of natural agriculture-related events in Israel. The principles and rules were fully codified by Maimonides in the Calnedario Torah in the 12th century. Maimonides’ work also replaced counting hebfeo since the destruction of the Temple” with the modern creation-era Anno Mundi. The Hebrew lunar year is about eleven days shorter than the solar year and uses the year Metonic cycle to bring it into line with the solar year, with the addition of an intercalary month every two or three years, for a total hereo seven times per 19 years.
Even with this intercalation, the average Hebrew calendar year is longer by about 6 minutes and 40 seconds than the current mean tropical yearso that every years the Hebrew calendar will fall a day behind the current mean tropical year; and about every years it will fall a day behind the mean Gregorian calendar year.
As with Anno Domini A. AM began at sunset on 9 September and will end at sunset on 29 September The Jewish day is of no fixed length. The Jewish day is modeled on the reference to ” Based on the classic rabbinic interpretation of this text, a day in the rabbinic Hebrew calendar runs from sunset start of “the evening” to the next sunset.
The time between true sunset and the time when the three stars are visible known as ‘tzait ha’kochavim’ is known as ‘bein hashmashot’, and there are differences of opinion as to which day it falls into for some uses. This may be relevant, for example, in determining the date of birth of a child born during that gap. There is no clock in the Jewish scheme, so that the local civil clock is used. Though the civil clock, including the one in use in Israel, incorporates local adoptions of various conventions such as time zonesstandard times and daylight savingthese have no place in the Jewish scheme.
The civil clock is used only as a reference point — in expressions such as: The steady progression of sunset around the world and seasonal changes results in gradual civil time changes from one day to the next based on observable astronomical phenomena the sunset and not on man-made laws and conventions. This proportional hour is known as a sha’ah z’manit lit. A Jewish hour is divided into halakim singular: Instead of the international date line convention, there are varying opinions as to where the day changes.
One opinion uses the antimeridian of Jerusalem. Other opinions exist as well.
Since some calculations use division, a remainder of 0 signifies Saturday. The end of the Shabbat and other Jewish holidays is based on nightfall Tzeth haKochabim which occurs some amount of time, typically 42 to 72 minutes, after sunset.
According to Maimonides, nightfall occurs when three medium-sized stars become visible after sunset. By the 17th century, this had become three-second-magnitude stars. The beginning of the daytime portion of each day is determined yebreo by dawn and sunrise.
573 halachic times are based on some combination of these four times and vary from day to day throughout the year and also vary significantly depending on location. The daytime hours are calendarrio divided into Sha’oth Zemaniyoth or “Halachic hours” by taking the time between sunrise and sunset or between dawn and nightfall and dividing it into 12 equal heebreo.
The nighttime hours are similarly divided into 12 equal portions, albeit a different amount of time than the “hours” of the daytime. The earliest and latest times for Jewish servicesthe latest time to eat hebrso on the day before Passover and many other rules are based on Sha’oth Zemaniyoth. For convenience, the modern day using Sha’oth Zemaniyoth is often discussed as if sunset were at 6: For example, halachic noon may be after 1: Within the Mishnahhowever, the numbering of the hours starts with the “first” hour after the start of the day.
The names for the days of the week, like those in the creation account, are simply the day number within the week, with Shabbat being the seventh day. Each day of the week runs from sunset to the following sunset and is figured locally.
The Hebrew calendar follows a seven-day weekly cycle, which runs concurrently with but independently of the monthly and annual cycles. The names for the days of the week are simply the day number within hwbreo week.
The names of the days of the week are hebfeo on the seven days mentioned in the creation story. For example, Genesis 1: And there was evening and there was morning, one day”. In subsequent verses, the Hebrew refers to the days using ordinal numbers, e. The rest day, Shabbathas a special role in the Jewish weekly cycle as being a calebdario and set apart day, where no work is done.
There are many special rules that relate to Shabbat, discussed more fully in the Talmudic tractate Shabbat. This period is fixed, during which no adjustments are made. There are additional rules in the Hebrew calendar to prevent certain holidays from falling on certain days calwndario the week. See Rosh Hashanah postponement rulesbelow. These rules are calednario by adding an extra day to Marcheshvan making it 30 days long or by removing one day from Kislev making it 29 days long.
Accordingly, a common Hebrew calendar year can have a calendairo ofor days, while a leap Hebrew calendar year can have a length ofor days.
The Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendarmeaning that months are based on lunar monthsbut years are based on solar years. These extra months are added seven times every nineteen years.
See Leap monthsbelow. The beginning of each Jewish lunar month is based on the appearance of the new moon. The mean period of the lunar month precisely, 55773 synodic month is very close to Accordingly, the basic Hebrew calendar year is one of twelve lunar months alternating between 29 and 30 days:.
In leap years such as an additional month, Adar I 30 days is added after Shevat, while the regular Adar is referred to as “Adar II. The insertion of the leap month mentioned above is based on the requirement that Passover —the festival celebrating the Exodus from Egypt, which took place in the spring—always occurs in the [northern hemisphere’s] spring season.
Since the adoption of a fixed calendar, intercalations in the Hebrew calendar have been assigned to fixed points in a year cycle. Prior hebreoo this, the intercalation was determined empirically:. The year may be hebrfo on three grounds: On two of these grounds it should be intercalated, but not on one of them alone.
From very early times, the Mesopotamian lunisolar calendar was in wide use by the countries of the western Asia region. The structure, which was also used by the Israelites, was based on lunar months with the intercalation of an additional month to hebrro the cycle closer to the solar cycle, although there is no evidence of a thirteenth month mentioned anywhere in the Hebrew Bible. According to the Mishnah and Toseftain the Maccabean, Herodian, and Mishnaic periods, new months were determined by the sighting of a new crescent, with two eyewitnesses required to testify to the Sanhedrin to having seen the new lunar crescent at sunset.
At first the beginning of each Jewish month was signaled ccalendario the communities of Israel and beyond by fires lit on mountaintops, but after the Samaritans cxlendario to light false fires, messengers were sent. In his work Mishneh TorahMaimonides included a chapter “Sanctification of the New Moon”, in which he discusses the calendariio rules and their scriptural basis.
By approximately 11 days. Therefore, whenever this excess accumulates to about 30 days, or a little more or less, one month is added and the particular year is made to consist of 13 months, and this is the so-called embolismic intercalated year. For the year could not consist of twelve months plus so-and-so many days, since it hebroe said: Both the Syrian calendarcurrently used in the Arabic-speaking countries of the Fertile crescentand the modern Assyrian calendar share many of the names for months with the Herbeo calendar, such as Nisan, Iyyar, Tammuz, Ab, Elul, Tishri and Adar, indicating a common origin.
The former name for October was Tesrin. At this time they adopted the Babylonian names for the months. The Babylonian calendar descended directly from the Sumerian calendar.
Biblical references to the pre-exilic calendar include ten months identified by number rather than by name. In parts of the Torah portion Noach “Noah” specifically, Gen 7: Prior to the Babylonian exile, the names of only four months are referred to in the Tanakh:. All of these are believed to be Canaanite names. In a regular kesidran year, Marcheshvan has 29 days and Kislev has 30 days.
However, because of the Rosh Hashanah postponement rules see below Kislev may lose a day to have 29 days, and the year is called a short chaser year, or Marcheshvan may acquire an additional day to have 30 days, and the year is called a full maleh year.
The calendar rules have been designed to ensure that Rosh Hashanah does not fall on a Sunday, Wednesday or Friday. This is to ensure that Yom Kippur does not directly precede or follow Shabbatwhich would create practical difficulties, and that Hoshana Rabbah is not on a Shabbat, in which case certain ceremonies would be lost for 7573 year.
The solar year is about eleven days longer than twelve lunar months. The Bible does not directly mention the addition calenfario “embolismic” or intercalary months. However, without the insertion of embolismic months, Jewish festivals would gradually shift outside of the seasons required by the Torah.
This has been ruled as implying a requirement for the insertion of embolismic months to reconcile the lunar cycles to the seasons, which are integral to solar yearly cycles.
When the observational form of the calendar was in use, whether or not an embolismic month was announced after the “last month” Adar depended on ‘aviv [i.
Thus, if Adar was over and spring had not yet arrived, an additional month was observed. Traditionally, for the Babylonian and Hebrew lunisolar calendarsthe years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 are the long month years of the Metonic cycle. This cycle forms the basis of the Christian ecclesiastical calendar and hsbreo Hebrew calendar and is used for the computation of the date of Easter each year. Adar I is actually considered to be the extra month, and has 30 days.
Herbeo was a chief consideration in the study of astronomy among the Jews; sacred time was based upon the cycles of the Sun and the Moon. The Talmud identified the twelve constellations of the zodiac with the twelve months of the Hebrew calendar. The discrepancy compared to the mean synodic month of This means that the calendar year normally contains days.
The Hebrew calendar year conventionally begins on Rosh Hashanah. However, other dates serve as the beginning of the year for different religious purposes.