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The claim that now every- one knows what the canonically prescribed acts of worship are, even if exaggerated, testifies to the perceived success of the Ottoman authorities in spreading knowledge of Islamic ortho- praxy throughout their domains.

While these creeds ddiyanet initially developed in a context of sectarian polemics, over time polemics had given way to doctrinal elucidation as their organizing principle, and by the late medieval period they had also begun to incorporate some discussion of ritual practice.

Wensinck, The Muslim Creed: Religion and Power in the Safavid Empire London,58—9. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.


Log In Sign Up. Those who can answer the questions correctly should be duly honoured, but those who cannot, depending on the extent of their deviance, should be publicly scolded, administered discretionary punish- ment or evicted from the neighbourhood.

The rush to compose catechisms by both Protestants and Catholics constitutes the best-known example of this phe- nomenon. They complained that the latter learned all valf they knew about religion from stories about the lives of the saints and had nothing like a catechism. Forced to go underground, they are assumed to have joined and gradually become indistinct under the banner of other orders such as the Bektashis, but references in such texts as the Discourse on Faith indicate that the Hurufis were still perceived to be an active and distinctive group in the early seven- teenth century.

Catechisms and Catechizing in England, c.

Giresun University Lifelong Learning Programme

While it is possible that the literature that is discussed here had parallels among the Arabic-speaking Muslims in the southern provinces of the empire, consideration of these other works lies outside the limits of this article. Because latter-day Muslims have become ex- cessively this-worldly and even downright impious, because they have no inborn fear of God and consider Paradise and Hell to be fables, one such writer wrote, they can be made to do the right thing only through coercion, whether it be by pious Muslims or by the state authorities.


In the future, it would be worth exploring more closely the continuities as well as discontinuities between the confessional policies of these two periods. On the Catholic practices, see R. First, it articulates a rather unusual narrative of the Islamization of the early Ottoman state. Some have also begun to explore the parallels and interconnections between the changing understandings and uses of religion in the Ottoman empire and Europe during this period, most recently with re- course to the concept of confessionalization.

Jahrhunderts Freiburg im Breisgau, For a partial critique of this view and for an exploration of the links between the practice and the more coercive instruments of the Counter-Reformation, see Wietse de Boer, The Conquest of the Soul: It would take years for them to learn about all this from Muslims.

Since it is common to think of secularization as a process that Downloaded from http: Hillerbrand and Anthony J. Even the most conservative commentators deemed it permissible for women to venture outside their homes to seek religious instruction if they had no means of obtaining it at home.

In addition to writing countless religious manuals, books of advice and polemical treatises to en- lighten laymen about the requirements of their faith, other pious men also articulated similar views on the heightened importance Downloaded from http: Since these manuals had begun to be written long before the onslaught of Ottoman confessionalization, it is necessary first to provide a Downloaded from http: Since both of these definitions had a long history behind them in the wider Islamic oecumene, it could be argued that the relative shift of weight from one to the other in the Ottoman context was simply an effect of Ottoman Sunnitization.


However, remote access to EBSCO’s databases from non-subscribing institutions is not allowed if the purpose of the use is for commercial gain through cost reduction or avoidance for a non-subscribing institution.

Journal of International Social Research. However, users may print, download, or doyanet articles for individual use.

Throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth ilmihzl, Catholics were intensely aware of Protestant catechisms, and often wrote theirs in re- sponse, and the same goes for the other side. And that is why they were able to conquer many lands and provinces.

Remapping the Empire Cambridge, ; Cornell H. Everyone knows these things that we have been telling you. The possibility cannot be discarded. An important corol- lary of this process was the transformation of the imams and muezzins of neighbourhood mosques into semi-public officials who performed various administrative functions for the state while at the same time representing the people of the neighbour- hood before the state authorities.

For other agents, see Eric R.

Only then did they feel at ease thinking they were part of the people of Islam. More tell- ingly, perhaps, some others found his discussion of how to incul- cate a better understanding of the Sunni creed so compelling that they copied precisely those sections and ditanet the resulting text as independent treatises in their own right.

MA dissertation,57—9. It is striking that his discussion of vwkf reli- gious and moral reform of Muslim households was just as con- scious of hierarchy as his treatment of religious and moral reform at the imperial eiyanet. However, when the subject comes to those branches Downloaded from http: For a critical view on the same, see Jack A. Oberman and James D. Their Histori- cal Development and Organization] Ankara, One candidate for such a comparative frame would be confes- sionalization.