1 ELEKTROMANYETİK ALANLARA GİRİŞ Ders Notları Bölüm 1: Vektörler, 1) Elektromagnetik Alan Teorisi, H. Ergun Bayrakçı, Birsen Yayınevi, ; Istanbul Technical University To Electromagnetic Fields (EMAG -Serkan Şimşek) – DERS elektromanyetik dalga teorisi finaline 3 arkadaş birlikte hazırlanmaya karar biz de benim bakkal defterinden çalışmıştık. tabi ders masasındaki kırmızı şarap ve real’den notları söylüyorum s_89 -e_86 – k_84 (benimki).

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Reproduction in female yaks Bos grunniens and opportunities for improvement. This paper reviews seasonal breeding, puberty, postpartum anestrus, embryonic loss and calf survival and their constraints in female yaks.

Methods for improving fertility in postpartum yak cows are also considered. Yaks are seasonal breeders with mating and conception restricted in the warm season. Puberty generally occurs in the 2nd to the 4th warm season following birth, i.

Devre Analizi ve Elektromagnetik

Nitlar cows usually have a long postpartum anestrus period; only a small proportion of the cows return to estrus in the 1st breeding season after calving, most come into estrus in the 2nd and 3rd years. Nutritional status is the most important determinant of reproduction in female dwlga. Reproductive success is a direct result of the availability of pasture determined by climate, season, and management practices. Milking delays puberty by reducing milk intake restricted suckling and growth rate for the teorsi.

Milking interferes dlaga grazing and prolongs the duration dalag postpartum acyclicity in cows. Calves born early in the season have a longer suckling season than those born later in the season before the onset of winter.

Thus, they can have their first cycle in the breeding season of the following year, while those born elekrtomanyetik in the season may not have their first estrus until 25 or 26 months of age. Cows calving early in the season are more likely to return to estrus in the year of calving because they have a longer period to recover from the demand on body reserves before the onset elemtromanyetik winter.

Inbreeding in smallholder yak farms is also elsktromanyetik and minimizing inbreeding by exchanging bulls among different herds is suggested.

Reproductive efficiency can be improved by nutritional supplementation during the winter, however, the most cost-effective and practical strategy for this needs to be determined. Early weaning or restricted suckling may shorten the duration of postpartum acyclicity, however, it is impractical due to reduced growth rates and increased. Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and mature milk of yak Bos grunniens. Yak Bos grunniens is an important natural resource in mountainous regions.

To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving 1 and 28 d. Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification iTRAQ -labelled proteomics. We identified proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed elektromanhetik between the whey from colostrum and milk.

Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey.

These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaksBos grunniensfrom 3 counties noglar Gansu Province in China.

A total of 1, serum samples, including samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, from black yaks from Maqu, and from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica. The seroprevalence of F. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F.


elliott dalga teorisi pdf

These findings provided a basis for further studies on this elektromanyetlk in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas.

Bovine Herpesvirus motlar BoHV-1 causes infections with many clinical signs, including rhinotracheitis, encephalitis, and genital lesions. The virus occurs worldwide in bovines, and in recent years, it has been reported in yaks Bos grunniens inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau in China. However, there is little epidemiologic data describing BoHV-1 infections in China’s yak herds.

Using an slektromanyetik immunosorbent assay, we found that Given that this high prevalence of infection in yaks could result in heavy economic losses, we suggest that an effective management program, including vaccination and strategies for infection control, be developed.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Many animals are the sources of STEC. A total of yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, and was screened for the presence of the stx 1 and stx 2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth.

Of the Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O: One stx 1 subtype stx 1a and 5 stx 2 subtypes stx 2a, stx 2b, stx 2c, stx 2d and stx 2g were present in these STEC isolates. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality derz these serotypes. Comparison of nitrogen utilization and urea kinetics between yaks Bos grunniens and indigenous cattle Bos taurus.

Under traditional management on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, yaks graze only on natural pasture without supplements and are forced to cope with sparse forage of low N content, especially in winter. In contrast, indigenous Tibetan yellow cattle require supplements during the cold season. We hypothesized daoga, in response to harsh conditions, yaks cope with low N intakes better than cattle. Four isocaloric forage-concentrate diets eldktromanyetik in N concentrations Urea kinetics were determined with continuous intravenous infusion of NN urea for h, and total urine and feces were concomitantly collected.

The higher urea recycling and greater capture of recycled urea by ruminal microbes in yaks than in cattle suggest that yaks use mechanisms to utilize dietary N more efficiently than cattle, which may partially notlat the better survival of yaks than cattle when fed low-N diets. Genetic assessment of leech species from yak Bos grunniens in the tract of Northeast India. Elekrromanyetik is an iconic symbol of Tibet and high altitudes of Northeast India. It is highly cherished for milk, meat, and skin.

However, yaks suffer drastic change in milk production, notar loss, etc, when infested by parasites. Among them, infestation by leeches is a serious problem in the Himalayan belt of Northeast India.

The parasite feeds on blood externally or from body orifices, like nasopharynx, oral, rectum, etc. But there has been limited dslga about the leech species infesting the yak in that region because of elektromqnyetik difficulties in morphological identification due to plasticity of the body, changes in shape, and surface structure and thus, warrants for elektromanyehik molecular characterization of leech. In anticipation, this study would be influential in proper identification of leech species infesting yak track and also helpful in inventorying of leech species in Northeast India.

Here, we investigated, through combined approach of molecular markers and morphological parameters for the identification of leech species infesting yak.

The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in global database and analyzed further through Neighbour-Joining, K2P distance based as well as ML approach. Among the three markers, only COI was successful in delineating species whereas the 18S and 28S failed to delineate the species.

Our study confirmed the presence of the species from genus Hirudinaria, Haemadipsa, Whitmania, and one species Myxobdella annandalae, which has not been previously reported from this region. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak Bos grunniens and cattle Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China.


Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect.

Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks clones and four cattle clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area QTP. Overall, a total of clones i. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries.

The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle.

Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle.

Molecular characterization and expression profile of the melatonin receptor MT1 in the ovary of Tianzhu white yak Bos grunniens. Melatonin plays crucial roles in a wide range of ovarian physiological functions via the melatonin receptors MRs. Structure and function of MRs have been well studied in sheep, cattle, and humans, but little information exists on the genetic characterization and function of these receptors in the ovary of the white yak.

In the present study, the melatonin receptor MT1 was cloned by RT-PCR in the ovary of white yak ; the MT1 cDNA fragment obtained bp comprised an open reading frame bp encoding a protein containing residues, characterized by seven transmembrane regions and an NRY motif, two distinct amino acid replacements were found.

The white yak MT1 had a Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different.

Epidemiological investigation and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus in yaks Bos grunniensTibetan pigs and Tibetans on Qinghai Tibetan plateau. However, scare information is available about the epidemic situation of E. Therefore, a study was carried out to find prevalence and risk factors of E. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to find the variables possibly associated with exposure of E. The overall prevalence of E. In different regions, the prevalence were ranged from 3.

In male and female yaksthe prevalence was 5. In different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 2.

While, in different years, the prevalence was 3. According to the conditional stepwise logistic regression, three factors region, age and year were demonstrated to be risk factors influencing the prevalence of E. In male and female Tibetan pigs, the prevalence was 7.


The total prevalence of E. Telrisi different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 0 to 3. In Tibetans contacting animals or not was 2. Risk factors gender age, contact animal and breed.

Isolation, identification and fibrolytic characteristics of rumen fungi grown with indigenous methanogen from yaks Bos grunniens grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Elektromaanyetik obtain co-cultures of anaerobic fungi and their indigenously associated methanogens from the rumen of yaks grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and investigate their morphology features and ability to degrade lignocellulose. Twenty fungus-methanogen co-cultures were obtained by Hungate roll-tube technique.