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In the following subchapter we will see hesta another Roman city, Apulum, became in the same 10th century the center of another polity. The fortress was restored after some time, in a different technique.
Stage II also ended with a general fire. If one were to assume, as contemporary Romanian historiographers do, that the territory between the Meszes Mountains and the sources of the Szamos River was inhabited by Romanians and Slavs in the ninth century and that the Hungarians systematically subdued them, toward the eleventh century, one would expect that the Hungarians would have borrowed place names from Romanian as is normal in such cases.
Ethnic names, for instance, are used inconsistently by the various authors: However, there are no certain archaeological arguments for this idea.
As already noted, nothing about these place names would indicate Romanian presence in that area at the time of the Hungarian conquest. They also reflected on the way the Romance population of the Vlachs had come to the areas of Southeastern Europe. T he Latinity of the Romanians. Cantemir even explained the existence of Vlachs on the Balkan Peninsula south of the Danube by Trajan’s colonization.
Gyula (title) – Wikipedia
When the power of this state declined after the death of Tzar Symeon inGlad, the ruler of this region, found an oppor- tunity to become independent. Niketas Nikhetas Choniates,  a Byzantine chronicler of the mid-twelfth century, mentioned that on romans way to Gesra Halicz after escaping from prison the Vlachs had captured Andronic Komnen.
The Romanians in the Anonymous Gesta Hungarorum: Komnena’s Alexiade described the Vlachs as a nomadic population, and several passages tell about their presence between the Balakn Mountains and the Danube. This conclusion is not new;  indeed, it has long been the subject of much in the past few decades new information has come to light that could lead to a solution of the problem.
The Pannonian origin of three monks from the Disentis monastery southern Germanyall of them called Pannonius in a document from 86 is uncertain. In order to match the arguments of the other Transylvanian peoples, the Romanians had to put forth the same kinds of claims as their adversaries.
After a second burning, the area of the hillfort was used as a ceme- tery, dated after the second half of the 11th century.
The biggest gains for Catholicism could be made, however, by converting the Orthodox Romanians. Nor was Horca the real conqueror, since his name was not preserved by the place-names in the area said to be occupied by him. InEmperor Anastasius was forced to give to Theo- doric the city of Sirmium and most of Pannonia Secunda; only the south-eastern corner of Pannonia with the small town of Bassianae continued to be kept by the Byzantines, with the help of the Heruli.
Copyright Office before January 1, Phase II ended in a fire, most probably caused by the Pecheneg attack of Interested in geography his Asia was read by Christopher Columbus and having. Because of this, there is still a fierce debate among scholars and historians regarding the authenticity of the events and the historicity of the figures described in the Gesta Hungarorumas well as the overall reliability of the chronicle.
These items become in their turn ele- ments of imaginary accounts or, in other cases, they are moved to different periods. Because agricultural techniques were rudimentary, the fields were abandoned after a short time, as peo- ple moved to other places with virgin soils.
These [Vlachs] are, in fact, the so-called Dacians, also called Bessians [Bessoi].
Thoughts of the Evaluation of Anonymus’s Gesta] in Hungarian. Consequently, historians debate whether Gelou was a historical person or an imaginary figure created by the unidentified author of the Gesta Hungarorum.
Hungaroru, Huns occupied in the following years the Pannonian provinces, but as foederati, like the romaa of Alatheus and Saphrac. IV was built in phase 2, which would mean that the dwellings were not con- temporary with phase 1. The western wall, 4 m thick, had a 2. In fact, the text which will be discussed in part III of our work speaks about two peoples, Blasi and Sclavi, not about a people and a group of shepherds.
Shepherding was the main occupa- tion of the medieval Romanians. As noticed Radu R. Glad could be either Romanian, or Bulgarian. Besides the Byzantine sources there are Muslim historical narratives, the reliability of which, however, is generally assumed to be questionable. An Enigma or a Source for History] in Hungarian.
It was used until the 15th century. Inthe Visigoths led by Alaric settled in Savia; another chieftain, Athaulf, occupied gwsta part of Pannonia Prima in Panoni autem, qui inhabitabant tunc Panoniam, omnes erant pastores romano- rum, et habebant super se decem reges potentes in tota Messia et Panonia, deficiente autem imperio Romanorum egressi sunt Ungari de Sycia provin- cia et regno magno, quod est ultra Meotidas paludes et pugnaverunt in campo magno, quod est inter Sicambriam et Albam Regalem cum X regibus dictis et optinuerunt eos et in signum victorie perpetuum erexerunt ibi lapidem marmoreum permaximum ubi est scripta prefata victoria, quiad huc perseverat usque in hodiernum diem.
The first data of the title, recorded by Ibn Rusta and Gardizican be traced back to the earlier works of Abu Abdallah al-Jayhani. When Duke Gelou saw this, he ran away with a few of his men in order to save his life. On the fourth day, they entered the castle and bound all of Menumorout’s warriors that they found there and put them into dreadful dungeons, taking the sons of the inhabitants as hostages.
Another pos- sible interpretation is that precinct no. A detailed analysis of the modern Romanian interpretation of Anonymus’s Gesta Hungarorum will follow. After he arrived, he told many things about the richness of that land: