PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version P. 15 mar. O planejamento descentralizado de Jane Jacobs. começa em nível teórico na introdução de “Morte e Vida das Grandes Cidades”. Apesar de. In this indispensable book, urban visionary Jane Jacobs – renowned author of The Death and Life of Great Jacobs pinpoints five pillars of our culture that are in serious decay: community and family; higher Morte e vida de grandes cidades.
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Entrar em Escola de Redes. Todas as mensagens do blog Meu blog Adicionar. Creio que os interessados em redes sociais deveriam ler Jacobs, pelo menos as duas obras citadas acima. Contudo, esse trunfo precisa ser capitalizado. Para surpresa geral, encontrou dezenove. After graduating from high school, where she claims she was bored and secretly read other books during the class, she became a voluntary journalist with the local newspaper.
After one and a half year Jacobs spread her wings and moved from provincial Scranton to cosmopolitan New York. The metropolis was in the middle of the Great Depression, however, and finding a job was far from being easy. Jacobs accepted all kinds of jobs, varying from journalist to secretary, but sometimes could find no work at all.
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In the periods when she was unemployed, she took long walks through New York and observed the hustle and bustle of the city. She also took courses in physics and social subjects at Columbia University, just because she vids them. Later she said that this time in New York taught her a lot about city life and the social-economic dynamic it radiates, a theme which reccurs in her work.
They moved into a house in the cozy New York neighborhood of Greenwich Village and raised their three children there.
In the meantime, Jacobs wrote for the magazine Architectural Forum, where she applied herself to urban development and planning. Then she found out how little planning theory corresponded with the reality of city life. Robert Moses, a powerful commissioner in New York at that time, for example, supported a policy in which small scale and lively neighborhoods must be replaced by megalomaniac projects like business centers, motorways and skyscrapers.
When even her own neighborhood was threatened by this urban monotony, Jacobs had enough and she started to write. Jacobs did not just have a trenchant writing style; she suited her actions action to her words.
Under her supervision demonstrations and neighborhood protests were held against what she called the “Federal Bulldozer” approach. Jacobs was arrested twice while doing this. The active attitude of Jacobs was also clear in her protests against the Vietnam War, which led to her permanently moving to Toronto, with her family, after 30 years in New York. She still lives there happily downtown, on Albany Avenue Although Jacobs does not always agree with the policy of the municipality, according to her Toronto continues to be a model of a diverse and vital city, or “a city which works.
Furthermore, she is, on request and unasked, involved in matters that occupy Canadian politics, like regionalism in Quebec. This societal involvement resulted in the book The Question of Separatism and articles in national newspapers and magazines. Gradually, apart from urban interest, Jacobs developed an interest in philosophical and social themes. From the nineties she occupied herself with penetrating the fundamental values in economy and society. In Systems of Survival she emphasized the inherent differences between the work of trade and that of administration, while in The Nature of Economies she drew parallels between the evolution of biological and economic systems.
Vida e Morte das Rodovias Urbanas
In Dark Age Ahead appeared, a book in which Jacobs warned contemporary man against the dangers of unbridled progressive thinking. If it were up to her, this would not be not the last book she writes. Even though Jacobs is advanced in years now and she suffers from physical ailments, she is determined to write two more books, namely A Short Biography of the Human Race and Uncovering the Economy. Just like her previous works, these books will surely get a lot of media attention when they are finished, but as in the past, she will reject every form of recognition.
Very exceptionally, inshe accepted the Toronto Arts for Life Time Achievement on Jane Jacobs Day; from that moment on, she has refused all prizes and honorary doctorates.
Her motto is and stays: Her work consists, in total, of seven books and a mogte of notes varying from short magazine articles to letters to newspapers. Jacobs still has a love-hate relation towards writing: From the sixties to grandds middle of the eighties Jacobs mainly wrote about motte problems of cities and their role in the economy and society.
She developed her ideas on this in three books which each have the word “cities” in the title. Her interest, vidw, seems so have shifted since the nineties to more social-philosophical issues, which also resulted in three books.
In these books Jacobs deals with the nature of fundamental cultural values and their social-economic meaning. Finally, there is one book that stands separate from the viva because of its focus on the Canadian province Quebec: The Question of Separatism She loves the urban dynamic and is fascinated by the people who live, work and amuse themselves in cities.
Cjdades vision is in sharp contrast to the ideal of many city planners and officials from her New York period, like Le Corbusier and Moses. According to Jacobs, urban development cannot be planned from behind a drawing table. For her a city is not something abstract. From the title of her first book The Death and Life of Great American Cities it is clear that daw prefers to use a biological metaphor: The elements of the city, “the people, streets, parks, neighborhoods, the government, the economy,” cannot exist without one another and are, like the organs of the human body, connected with each other.
In this evolutionary approach streets play an important role: The street is the scene a “sidewalk ballet,” according to Jacobs, which determines the security, social cohesion and economic development of cities.
From this perspective, kacobs taking out the garbage or having a talk with a passer-by is a deed of dramatic expression. These every gfandes acts make a city into a vital city.
cidade In The Death and Life Jacobs expands on the physical conditions which are the foundation of the street ballet. For a good performance of the urban play, she claims, the scene needs to meet four conditions. Firstly, neighborhoods should have several functions, so that there are people on the streets at all hours of the day. If in a neighborhood there is only activity at night, or in the morning, as in many business or commuter areas, activities like hotel and catering, culture and retail grandex hardly get the chance to blossom.
In neighborhoods with a mix of functions, however, throughout the day these facilities are needed which in itself starts a process of reinforcement. Secondly, Jacobs believes that a city benefits from short building blocks and an intricate street mortd. Pedestrians must have the possibility to go round, take a different route sometimes, and thereby discovering something new.
Thirdly, there should be enough variation in the residential area: Lastly, Jacobs advocates a high degree of concentration of people in one place. She supports compact city neighborhoods where different kinds of households and individuals families, elderly, entrepreneurs, artists, migrants, students live together. The fact is that this variety on the small scale results in the critical mass which is necessary to maintain an equally varied supply of local facilities. In such a busy and diverse neighborhood the local supermarket, the kebab shop and the chain store can coexist without problems.
Jacobs emphasizes that the spatial conditions for a street ballet cannot do without one another. Only in combination do they lead to the diversity that is needed for a blossoming city life. In this way, urban diversity jacobbs that there are people close by at every moment of the day. If there are enough “eyes on the street,” she claims, crime is not given a chance and the collective feeling of security increases.
The variety in functions, buildings and people also plays an important role in maintaining social cohesion. It is not so much about keeping in touch with the neighbors, but rather about interaction on the street, at the bus stops or in shops. This is how people get jans feeling of belonging to a community, or being at home somewhere. In vidz to indicate these loose neighborhood networks, Jacobs talks about “social capital,” a term which is very popular nowadays among city governors.
Not only socially, but also economically, urban diversity is of great importance, according to Jacobs. In an area of the city with grajdes kinds of suppliers and buyers, vixa can share their facilities, such as office spaces and machines, and profit from a varied supply of knowledge and expertise.
The cross-fertilization which results ciades that diversity works as a magnet for companies that are looking for a new place to establish themselves. Additionally, the mix of old and new buildings in the neighborhood gives every type of entrepreneur a chance. Cities and Economics Although in her first work Jacobs pays special attention to the city life of every day, in the two books that follow she places the city in a jaclbs historical and economic context. In The Economy of Cities Jacobs asks the simple though classical question “why some cities grow and others stagnate and decay,” a theme that many historians since the Greek historian Herodotus have occupied themselves with.
In her book, Jacobs introduces iane analysis that contradicts the prevailing opinions on urban development.
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Generally, one assumes that the agricultural era preceded the period in which cities flourished. According to Jacobs, however, cities already existed before humankind even started kane agriculture; in fact, it was the cities that have made agricultural activities possible. Ultimately, Jacobs claims, every form of economic development has a basis in the city. In order to build her thesis, she refers to a number of examples and anecdotes. For example, it is clear from archaeological research that the first cities were trading posts: Furthermore, the development of the Japanese bicycle industry is used as an example: In the end, the Japanese became so good at repairing the imported bicycles that they – also in order to distinguish themselves from their local rivals – started to develop, produce and export their own bicycles.
Jacobs concludes from these jaocbs of examples the general thesis that cities grow by treating, renewing and exporting imported goods and services, which results in income that can be used to import new items. The activities of the city offer the best setting for this innovation and “import replacement,” says Jacobs, because entrepreneurs will continuously try to be ahead of the local competition.
Jacobs transfers this regularity into the formula: This comparison simply shows the way in which new activities develop from existing ones and thus how the economy of cities jacobz. In Cities and the Wealth of Nations Jacobs goes one step further in the praise of the city: According to her, economists “whether they are liberal or Marxist” wrongly assume that countries form the relevant economic units.
Ultimately, trade and commercial activities always play at the level of a city and the region on which it has an influence. According to Jacobs, macro-economic figures like growth or unemployment percentages give a biased view: These differences are an explanation for the paradox that a country can do well economically, on paper, while some of the inhabitants live in great poverty.
Quem planeja? O planejamento descentralizado de Jane Jacobs | Caos Planejado
In this context Jacobs points to the situation in Brazil, the United States and Italy in the sixties. She says that national policy is moreover an improper instrument to solve regional inequalities in a country.
The national government had better leave the economic politics to the cities, not just because it is there that prosperity is created, but also because local politicians know better which measures are needed in a city because of their knowledge of the local situation.
The plea of Jacobs to think from the concrete, local and small-scale can ciaddes be found in the contributions she made to the debate in the Canadian politics.