Build It to Understand It: Ludology Meets Narratology in Game Design Space were realized, including the hotly debated question of ludology vs. narratology. LUDOLOGY MEETS NARRATOLOGY.: Similitude and differences between ( video)games and narrative. By Gonzalo Frasca. Finnish version. Ludology Meets Narratology – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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Bolter, Jay David University of Nebraska Press, So, who will do the dirty job? Ediciones de la Banda Oriental, Heide Smith, Jonas ludolgoy However, just as narrative is not confined to fictional discourse, games are not always fictional either. We also have just focused on certain videogames, and a very particular kind of cybertext: The differences between representations and simulations are less straightforward, however.

Nowadays, paidea -based environments lack of characters with the characteristics of narrative characters.

This applies to many games in the limited, everyday sense of the word but also to interactions between decision makers in which things are more complicated. Retrieved March 22, The session is not the ludusit is just a product of it.

But, again, this distinction confuses the narrxtology experience with a theoretical perspective. Game theory does not deal with games as cultural artefacts or commodities brought into global circulation by the entertainment industries, or as platforms for exploring questions of identity and sexuality, which are all part of the cultural studies approaches to games, but neither do narratology or ludology.


The reader may consult this previous work in order to find broader explanations and examples of many topics analyzed here. Based on our previous definition, we can easily describe the ludus process as follows: Languages even have syntactical constructions for thought experiments like these, known as conditionals, counterfactuals or hypothetical constructions e.

There is some truth in this complaint, because readers or spectators who are fully engaged with a story are usually not in the best position to reflect on its structural and functional properties. Retrieved March 23, However, that does not mean that they are the same thing.

Their thematic is varied: However, even if plot is an important element of narrative, many others exist. The American Mathematical Society. The reason is that games have a strong social component, and young children need first to be socialized in order to perform that kind of activities.

This may be because the theory is meetts on idealized players who have clear motives and unlimited skill and calculating ability. Theory of games and economic behavior.

Time is part of the referent of a simulation model, but not of the model itself.

Build It to Understand It: Ludology Meets Narratology in Game Design Space | DiGRA

This terminological distinction captures some major differences between game theory and games studies. Unfortunately they choose to do so with arguments that are mainly derived from narrative theory itself, and thus firmly stay attached to the umbilical cord that keeps them tied to their parent discipline. Narrative characters are not like real people; usually they are archetypes the hypochondriac, the joker, etc.


Sometimes, rules are backed up by organizations that define their rules, like FIFA for soccer.

Build it to understand it: Ludology meets narratology in game design space

Some authors see cybertexts and videogames as a new form of or as an expansion of traditional narrative or drama. Game theory is not interested in rules but in reasoning.

On the other hand, narrative characters are generally driven by different goals narratloogy or unconscientlymaking their behavior more similar to ludus. Le masque et le vertige. Something similar happens in MUDs.

Build It to Understand It: Ludology Meets Narratology in Game Design Space

A ludologist would argue that a reader or film spectator nevertheless always knows that the story will come to an already determined end. If one is to go by the writings of some games studies scholars, games studies and narratology are like two players involved in a zero-sum game in which one player gains what the other player loses. The possible reason is that, narratooogy Lloyd S. University of Toronto Press. The same goes for game players.

In these ludolpgy, the player can easily know the final result.